Time. It’s complicated. Some days it moves slowly, other days we wish we had more of it. This Sunday, March 11, we lose an hour of it. Daylight Saving Time will begin and continue until we “fall back” in October. But what is the reason behind this tradition?
Spoiler alert: It’s not for farmers! If you’ve heard that before, it’s purely a myth! Farmers have always been opposed to the idea. Why you ask? Because plants and animals don’t read clocks! Farming schedules are set by the sun, not the clock, and changing time around twice a year can be confusing and make it difficult to get work done.
There are a few individuals in history who all had a general idea of daylight saving time. Benjamin Franklin is often given all the credit, but what he proposed (rather sarcastically) was that people just wake up earlier in the summer. In 1895, George Hudson, an entomologist from New Zealand, proposed a two-hour time shift that would allow him more time for bug hunting. Not many years later, William Willet in Great Britain was inspired to conserve daylight while out horseback riding one morning. He is the one who officially proposed legislation to British Parliament. It was not a smashing hit with lawmakers, however, and didn’t really go anywhere at the time.
In 1916, two years into World War I, the German government needed to find ways to save energy. They thought back to Willet’s idea of moving the clock to have more daylight working hours, and gave it a try. During this time, coal was the primary power source, and there was a measurable savings in energy usage by changing clocks to capture more daylight hours. In 1918, the United States first implemented Daylight Saving Time as part of the war effort. The Standard Time Act that Congress passed including Daylight Saving Time, and also defined time zones within the United States.
After the war ended, so did the federal Daylight Saving Time, and things were left to local governments. It got a little out of hand, and Time Magazine described the system as ”a chaos of clocks.” In 1965, there were 23 different start and end dates just in the state of Iowa!
The biggest complaints came from the transportation industry. They pushed the hardest for federal regulation, which resulting in the Uniform Time Act of 1966. This established a permanent Daylight Saving schedule for everyone, starting on the last Sunday in April and ending on the last Sunday in October. States can opt out, but the entire state has to do so (as opposed to city or county) and Congress has to sign off. In 1986, Daylight Saving Time was extended to the first Sunday in April. In 2005, it was extended to begin the second Sunday in March and end the first Sunday in November.
Who in the government is in charge of regulating Daylight Saving Time? The Department of Transportation. The Chamber of Commerce is also a big supporter of Daylight Saving Time, because if there is still daylight after we leave work, we are more likely to go somewhere and spend money! Don’t be fooled, studies have shown that Daylight Savings Time does not actually save any energy in the modern day.
Are you a fan of Daylight Saving Time? It depends on how you like to spend your day. Would you rather have a brighter morning or a brighter evening?
Those who are big fans of Daylight Saving Time most likely live in a northerly place. That’s because the farther you live from the Equator, the more drastic your seasons will be. The top and bottom parts of the globe receive drastically different amounts of daylight based on the time of year. In Fairbanks, Alaska, the longest day has 22 hours of daylight, and the shortest day has only 3 hours. This is very different from locations closer to the Equator. In St. Augustine, Florida, the longest day has 14 hours of daylight, and the shortest day has about 10 hours.
Arizona does not observe Daylight Saving Time. That’s because is so darn hot! During the summer, the only time it’s bearable to be outside is at night. Residents prefer the sun to set early, so they can leave the house comfortably.
Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands do not observe Daylight Saving Time. They are all located relatively close to the Equator, so the length of daylight is pretty consistent year-round. Changing clocks is basically just an inconvenience.
Observing Daylight Saving Time continues to be controversial. More and more people are wondering why we do it, and wonder if we should keep doing it. More and more state governments are bringing it up as a point of discussion. Will this tradition continue? Only time will tell.